This is a tutorial I’ve written mostly for my own purposes that I have adapted from the orginal post from Vultr. Kudos to those guys.
Fresh Ubuntu Server install on a VPS with sudo access.
A domain pointed at the server.
Install necessary (and extra) software
First, update the system.
sudo apt upgrade -y && sudo apt dist-upgrade -y && sudo apt autoremove -y && sudo apt clean -y && sudo reboot
Then, install software we will use for the server.
sudo apt install -y ufw \ fail2ban \ unzip \ zip \ git \ tree \ openssh-server \ net-tools \ curl \ software-properties-common
Update UFW firewall rules
sudo ufw allow in ssh && \ sudo ufw allow in http && \ sudo ufw allow in https && \ sudo ufw enable
Install, setup and secure MariaDB
To install the latest version of MariaDB directly, you will need to add the MariaDB repos. Confirm the latest version here, and update the version number and Ubuntu version as needed.
sudo apt install -y software-properties-common && \ sudo apt-key adv --recv-keys --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 0xF1656F24C74CD1D8 && \ sudo add-apt-repository 'deb [arch=amd64,arm64,ppc64el] http://mirrors.accretive-networks.net/mariadb/repo/10.5/ubuntu focal main' && \ sudo apt update && \ sudo apt install -y mariadb-server
During the install, provide a strong password for MariaDB. If not requested, no sweat, we’ll secure it in the next block.
Ok, now fire up MariaDB and also make it start up automatically with the system on reboot:
sudo systemctl start mariadb.service sudo systemctl enable mariadb.service
Now, let’s secure MariaDB:
A prompt will come up, answer as below, but remember to provide a strong root password now if not done so previously.
Enter current password for root (enter for none): strong-ass-MariaDB-root-password Change the root password? [Y/n]: n Remove anonymous users? [Y/n]: y Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n]: y Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n]: y Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n]: y
sudo apt install -y apache2
Go to the server URL to confirm Apache is up and running.
Remove the standard Apache welcome page.
sudo mv /var/www/html/index.html /var/www/html/index.html.old
Backup the default .conf file and block Apache from exposing the web root directory:
sudo cp /etc/apache2/apache2.conf /etc/apache2/apache2.conf.bak sudo sed -i "s/Options Indexes FollowSymLinks/Options FollowSymLinks/" /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
Enable the Apache rewrite module, start the service and auto-start
sudo a2enmod rewrite sudo systemctl start apache2.service sudo systemctl enable apache2.service
Install latest PHP Packages
In order to run the latest PHP 7.x packages, we need to add the repo:
sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:ondrej/php sudo apt update sudo apt upgrade -y sudo apt autoremove -y
Install the latest 7.4 packages. Before doing so, confirm the latest version here, and if higher the 7.4, substitute that version wherever you see 7.4.
sudo apt install -y php7.4 php7.4-opcache php7.4-cli php7.4-curl php7.4-common php7.4-gd php7.4-intl php7.4-mbstring php7.4-mysql libapache2-mod-php7.4 php7.4-soap php7.4-xml php7.4-xmlrpc php7.4-zip php7.4-ldap php-apcu-bc
Backup and then edit the PHP config file pertaining to Apache:
sudo cp /etc/php/7.4/apache2/php.ini /etc/php/7.4/apache2/php.ini.bak sudo sed -i 's#;date.timezone =#date.timezone = America/Sao_Paulo#' /etc/php/7.4/apache2/php.ini
Right, now let’s adjust the php.ini file to meet the necessities of Chamilo LMS:
sudo nano /etc/php/7.4/apache2/php.ini
session.cookie_httponly = upload_max_filesize = 2M post_max_size = 8M
And update them to look like these:
session.cookie_httponly = 1 upload_max_filesize = 100M post_max_size = 100M
Setup the Database
sudo mysql -u root -p CREATE DATABASE chamilo; CREATE USER 'chamilo'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password'; GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON chamilo.* TO 'chamilo'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password' WITH GRANT OPTION; FLUSH PRIVILEGES; EXIT;
Make sure to update at least the password with your prefered choice, and the DB name and user should you wish to.
Get Chamilo files
Let’s now head to Chamilo’s GitHub page to confirm we have the latest version. Update the link and steps below as needed:
cd wget https://github.com/chamilo/chamilo-lms/releases/download/v1.11.14/chamilo-1.11.14.tar.gz
Extract all the files to the /opt directory:
sudo tar -zxvf chamilo-1.11.14.tar.gz -C /opt
Create a symbolic link between the unzip directory and the webserver root directory"
sudo ln -s /opt/chamilo-lms-1.11.14 /var/www/html/chamilo
Modify the ownership of all Chamilo files to the
www-data user and the
sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /opt/chamilo-lms-1.11.14
Configure Apache virtual server for Chamilo
cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/apache2/sites-available/chamilo.conf <VirtualHost *:80> ServerAdmin email@example.com DocumentRoot /var/www/html/chamilo ServerName chamilo.example.com ServerAlias example.com <Directory /> AllowOverride All Require all granted </Directory> <Directory /var/www/html/chamilo> Options FollowSymLinks AllowOverride All Require all granted </Directory> ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/chamilo.example.com-error_log CustomLog /var/log/apache2/chamilo.example.com-access_log common </VirtualHost> EOF
Update the ServerAdmin, ServerName, ServerAlias, ErrorLog and CustomLog as necessary.
Then, create the symbolic links to the
/etc/apache2/sites-enabled directory, while deleting the Apache default link.
sudo rm /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.conf sudo ln -s /etc/apache2/sites-available/chamilo.conf /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/
Finally, restart Apache so all the changes are activated.
sudo systemctl restart apache2.service
Complete the install in the browser
Open up your browser and navigate to your server, for example:
http://chamilo.iamamazing.com, and click on Install Chamilo. From here on, fill out the details as requested, but here is a quick guide for you.
Step 1 - Installation Language: Choose the language of choice and then click the
Step 2 – Requirements: Make sure that all mandatory requirements have been met, and then click the
Step 3 – Licence: Read the licence if you dare, and the click the checkbox next to the
I agreesentence, fill in all required fields, and then click the
Step 4 – MySQL database settings: Input the database credentials we setup earlier and then click the
Check database connectionbutton to verify them. Click the
Nextbutton to move on.
Step 5 – Config settings: Modify the pre-set administrator password, fill in the other fields accordingly, and then click the
Step 6 – Last check before install: Review all of the settings and hit the
Install Chamilobutton to start the web installation.
Step 7 – Installation process execution: When Chamilo is successfully installed, click the
Go to your newly created portal.button to finish the web installation wizard.
Post-Install Safety Measure: DO NOT SKIP THIS!!!
In order to tighten security of the installation folders, we need to change their permissions:
sudo chmod -R 0555 /var/www/html/chamilo/app/config sudo rm -rf /var/www/html/chamilo/main/install
Firstly, install fail2ban.
sudo apt-get install fail2ban
fail2ban creates ‘jails’ in .conf files. This standard config is removed each time fail2ban upgrades, so we’ll make a customized file.
So, lets make a copy of the default file and then edit our own version.
sudo cp /etc/fail2ban/jail.conf /etc/fail2ban/jail.local sudo nano /etc/fail2ban/jail.local
Scroll down to the [DEFAULT] and [sshd] sections, that come up from about line 90 onwards. It appears near the top too, but ignore that. Find the following lines and update as below. See the source link above for further details of each.
ignoreip = 127.0.0.1/8 ::1 bantime = 24h findtime = 5m maxretry = 3
[sshd] section: ADD these 2 lines to the end of the [sshd] section.
maxretry = 3 enable = true
Enable the service and auto-start.
sudo systemctl enable fail2ban sudo systemctl start fail2ban
Check that fail2ban is working.
sudo systemctl status fail2ban.service
Check fail2ban status. This should show the active jail.
sudo fail2ban-client status
To show the exact status of the jail we activated. It will show any IPs that are banned.
sudo fail2ban-client status sshd
Testing the jail: see source link above.
Unbanning an IP
After seeing the banned IP from above, use the command below, inserting the appropriate IP.
sudo fail2ban-client set sshd unbanip 192.168.4.25
Now it can try again.
Let’s Encrypt Certificate
This part is adapted from a [Digital Ocean tutorial](How To Secure Apache with Let's Encrypt on Ubuntu 20.04 | DigitalOcean).
SSL certs are a must have so let’s hook them up.
Firstly, install the certbot.
sudo apt install -y certbot python3-certbot-apache
ServerAlias details in your chamilo.conf file as we will need these for the cert request.
sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/chamilo.conf
Let’s quickly recheck that our Apahce files are all good and then reload Apache incase we made changes.
sudo apache2ctl configtest sudo systemctl reload apache2
Allow HTTPS through the firewall
Confirm the current status.
sudo ufw status
If HTTP and HTTPS aren’t allowed through, please refer back to the UFW setup above.
Obtain SSL Certificate
sudo certbot --apache
A script will start to configure SSL. You will be asked to give an email, and you must in order to receive notices of expiring certs.
When asked, agree to Let’s Encrypt’s TOS, by pressing A.
Certbot will then ask you which domains you want to get certs for. This is where having accurate ServerName and ServerAlias details is important.
When asked whether you want to redirect traffic, chose option
2 for YES. This will force all conenctions over HTTPS.
Please choose whether or not to redirect HTTP traffic to HTTPS, removing HTTP access. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1: No redirect - Make no further changes to the webserver configuration. 2: Redirect - Make all requests redirect to secure HTTPS access. Choose this for new sites, or if you're confident your site works on HTTPS. You can undo this change by editing your web server's configuration. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Select the appropriate number [1-2] then [enter] (press 'c' to cancel): 2
If you get the message below, you’re golden!
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Congratulations! You have successfully enabled https://your_domain and https://www.your_domain You should test your configuration at: https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=your_domain https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=www.your_domain - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - IMPORTANT NOTES: - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at: /etc/letsencrypt/live/your_domain/fullchain.pem Your key file has been saved at: /etc/letsencrypt/live/your_domain/privkey.pem Your cert will expire on 2020-07-27. To obtain a new or tweaked version of this certificate in the future, simply run certbot again with the "certonly" option. To non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run "certbot renew" - Your account credentials have been saved in your Certbot configuration directory at /etc/letsencrypt. You should make a secure backup of this folder now. This configuration directory will also contain certificates and private keys obtained by Certbot so making regular backups of this folder is ideal. - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by: Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt: https://letsencrypt.org/donate Donating to EFF: https://eff.org/donate-le
You can confirm your SSL cert and it’s grade over at [SSL Labs Server Test](SSL Server Test (Powered by Qualys SSL Labs)).
Verify Certbot Auto-Renewal
Our certbot package will automatically auto-renew our certificate. To check the status of this service, let’s use:
sudo systemctl status certbot.timer
Your output should look like this.
Output ● certbot.timer - Run certbot twice daily Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/certbot.timer; enabled; vendor preset: enabled) Active: active (waiting) since Tue 2020-04-28 17:57:48 UTC; 17h ago Trigger: Wed 2020-04-29 23:50:31 UTC; 12h left Triggers: ● certbot.service Apr 28 17:57:48 fine-turtle systemd: Started Run certbot twice daily.
And if you want to test the renewal process, run this.
sudo certbot renew --dry-run
That’s it! All should be working now.